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Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria , is a country in the Balkans located in south-eastern Europe. Bulgariashares its borderswith five other countries: Romania to the north, Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia to the west, and Greece and Turkey to the south. The Black Sea borders the country to the east.

Bulgaria covers an area of 110,994 square kilometers. It ranks as the third-largest country in Southeast Europe (after Romania and Greece). The country has many mountainous areas that help define the landscape, notably the Stara Planina (Balkan) and Rodopi mountain ranges, as well as the Rila range, which includes the highest peak in the Balkan region, Musala. However,the Danubian plain in the north and the Upper Thracian Plain in the south aret Bulgaria's lowest and most fertile regions. The 378-kilometer Black Sea coastline stretches across the entire eastern bound of the country.

The beginnings of a Bulgarian national identity and state dates to the 7th century AD. Many Bulgarian political ideas subsequently emerged saving the traditions (ethnic name, language and alphabet) of the First Bulgarian Empire (632/681 – 1018), which covered most of the Balkans and spread its alphabet, literature and culture among the Slavic and other inhabitants of Eastern Europe, eventually becoming the cultural center of the medieval Slavs. Many centuries later, with the decline of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185 – 1396/1422), Bulgarian territories came under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries.

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